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Table 5 ANCOVA Model 2B: Bile-Extracted, Farm-Not-Extracted, Zoo, and Free-Range Bear Data adjusting for sex (log transformed)

From: Metabolic derangements and reduced survival of bile-extracted Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus)

Serum/Hematology ParametersObsBear Group
(p-value)
InteractionsLevelDifferenceSELower CIUpper CIp-value
Sex
ALT383< 0.0001BE-FNE0.2870.0740.1380.4360.000c
BE-Zoo0.5100.1450.2200.8010.001c
BE-FR0.2490.1320.0150.5130.065c
GGT344< 0.0001BE-FNE0.7320.1180.4930.970< 0.0001c
BE-Zoo2.0930.2111.6632.523< 0.0001c
BE-FR2.1280.1921.7372.519< 0.0001c
ALKP366< 0.0001BE-FNE−0.0370.084−0.2110.1370.737c
BE-Zoo−1.1350.163−1.471−0.800< 0.0001c
BE-FR−0.1110.148−0.4170.1940.515c
LDH294< 0.0001BE-FNE−0.5680.070−0.714−0.423< 0.0001c
BE-Zoo−0.2180.117−0.4600.023< 0.0001c
BE-FR−0.4710.107−0.691− 0.2500.078c
CK3010.0002BE-FNE0.5930.1310.3180.867< 0.0001c
BE-Zoo0.2090.222−0.2560.6750.424
BE-FR0.0910.202−0.3340.5160.761
CREA371 < 0.0001F,BE-F,FNE−0.1340.052−0.2940.0250.172b
F,BE-F,Zoo−0.0770.103−0.3900.2370.996b
F,BE-F,FR0.3090.113−0.0360.6530.117b
M,BE-M,FNE0.2250.0610.0390.4120.006b
M,BE-M,Zoo0.1640.115−0.1860.5150.843b
M,BE-M,FR0.1500.089−0.1220.4220.701b
TP386< 0.0001BE-FNE0.0740.0140.0460.101< 0.0001c
BE-Zoo−0.0270.027−0.0810.0260.328c
BE-FR0.0330.024−0.0160.0820.186c
ALB386< 0.0001BE-FNE0.2530.0200.2140.293< 0.0001c
BE-Zoo0.3110.0380.2340.388< 0.0001c
BE-FR0.2070.0350.1370.277< 0.0001c
GLOB385< 0.0001BE-FNE−0.1270.027−0.181−0.073< 0.0001c
BE-Zoo−0.3500.053−0.456−0.245< 0.0001c
BE-FR−0.1720.048−0.268−0.0760.0004
PCV3430.0148BE-FNE0.0090.030−0.0520.0700.790c
BE-Zoo−0.1500.053−0.256− 0.0440.005c
BE-FR−0.0770.049−0.1750.0220.128c
TWBC335< 0.0001BE-FNE0.3140.0620.1890.439< 0.0001c
BE-Zoo−0.1130.098−0.3100.0830.2651c
BE-FR0.3540.0910.1710.5360.0001c
  1. Obs = number of observations; SE = standard error; CI = confidence interval; ALT = alanine aminotransferase; GGT = gamma glutamyl transferase; ALKP = alkaline phosphatase; LDH = lactate dehydrogenase; CK = creatine kinase; CREA = creatinine; TP = total protein; ALB = albumin; GLOB = globulin; PCV = packed cell volume; TWB = total white blood cell count; BE = bile-extracted; FNE = farm-not-extracted; FR = free-range; F = female; M = male; “- -” indicates p-values > 0.05 and denotes interaction terms removed by stepwise selection, resulting in the reported significant p-values listed under Bear Group or Interaction columns after the other interactions terms were removed from the model; bTukey HSD, cDunnett
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