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Clinical pathology, physiology and immunology

The Clinical Pathology, Physiology and Immunology considers all sound science research study types in which laboratory analysis and the use of biomarkers have a major role in enhancing our understanding of animal health. This section is open to any animal species and comparative studies are also considered. Studies must be scientifically valid; for research articles this includes a scientifically sound research question, the use of suitable methods and analysis, and following community-agreed standards relevant to the research field.

 The main topics covered in this section include:

  •   Laboratory assays and methods validation
  •   Laboratory methods applied to study pathophysological changes in disease
  •   Hematology
  •   Clinical Biochemistry
  •   Endocrinology Tests
  •   Immunological Assays
  •   Cytology
  •   Development and validation of new biomarkers including proteomic studies

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  1. Erysipelas, caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (ER), is an important emerging disease in free-range and organic egg-production. The aim of the present study was to assess if quantification of ER specific IgY ...

    Authors: Eva Wattrang, Helena Eriksson, Ann Albihn and Tina Sørensen Dalgaard

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:111

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Candida is the common conditionally pathogenic fungus that infected human and animal clinically. C. tropicalis had been isolated from the skin and hair of healthy pigs, but with no report of fatal infection in ga...

    Authors: Lufeng Zhai, Ying Zhou, Yingxia Wu, Yunyun Jin, Qiaoyan Zhu, Shengguo Gao, Xuefeng Li, Zhe Sun, Yan Xiao, Baicheng Huang and Kegong Tian

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:108

    Content type: Case Report

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  3. Lymphocytic neoplasms with frequent reactive lymphocytes are uncommonly reported in dogs, and can pose a diagnostic challenge. Different diagnostic modalities such as cytology, flow cytometry, histopathology, ...

    Authors: Gary Kwok Cheong Lee, Dorothee Bienzle, Stefan Matthias Keller, Mei-Hua Hwang, Nikos Darzentas, Haiyang Chang, Emily Rätsep, Rebecca Egan and Janet Beeler-Marfisi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:85

    Content type: Case Report

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  4. Respiratory diseases are among the most important factors affecting swine farm productivity in Canada. The objectives of this study were to investigate antibody responses to porcine reproductive and respirator...

    Authors: Elana Raaphorst, Abdolvahab Farzan, Robert M. Friendship and Brandon N. Lillie

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:82

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Proxies are mathematical calculations based on fasting glucose and/or insulin concentrations developed to allow prediction of insulin sensitivity (IS) and β-cell response. These proxies have not been evaluated...

    Authors: Sanna Lindåse, Katarina Nostell, Peter Bergsten, Anders Forslund and Johan Bröjer

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:78

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Streptococcus suis is an important pathogen that causes severe diseases mostly in weaned piglets. Only available vaccines in the field are those composed of killed bacteria (bacterins) but data about their effect...

    Authors: Lorelei Corsaut, Léa Martelet, Guillaume Goyette-Desjardins, Guy Beauchamp, Martine Denicourt, Marcelo Gottschalk and Mariela Segura

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:72

    Content type: Research article

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  7. In dogs with atopic dermatitis, intradermal testing (IDT) or allergen specific IgE serological testing are routinely employed to identify causative allergens. These allergens can then be used for allergen-spec...

    Authors: N. Khantavee, C. Chanthick, A. Tungtrongchitr, N. Techakriengkrai, S. Suradhat, N. Sookrung, S. Roytrakul and N. Prapasarakul

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:71

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is an enteric pathogen that affects Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon shrimp in many SE Asian countries. In the western hemisphere, EHP was reported for the first time in 2016...

    Authors: L. F. Aranguren Caro, F. Alghamdi, K. De Belder, J. Lin, H. N. Mai, J. Millabas, Y. Alrehaili, A. Alazwari, S. Algetham and A. K. Dhar

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:65

    Content type: Research article

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  9. It is difficult to examine mild to moderate feline intra-thoracic lymphadenopathy via and thoracic radiography. Despite previous information from computed tomographic (CT) images of intra-thoracic lymph nodes,...

    Authors: Ninlawan Thammasiri, Chutimon Thanaboonnipat, Nan Choisunirachon and Damri Darawiroj

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:59

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Breed specific reference ranges for selected blood parameters are recommended for proper interpretation of blood tests, but there are only few reports dealing with ponies. The purpose of this study was to inve...

    Authors: Witkowska-Piłaszewicz Olga, Cywińska Anna, Michlik-Połczyńska Katarzyna, Czopowicz Michał, Strzelec Katarzyna, Biazik Anna, Parzeniecka-Jaworska Marta, Crisman Mark and Witkowski Lucjan

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:38

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Obesity is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and considered a risk factor for diabetes mellitus (DM) in cats. It has been proposed that homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), which is the product of fas...

    Authors: Emma M. Strage, Charles J. Ley, Johannes Forkman, Malin Öhlund, Sarah Stadig, Anna Bergh and Cecilia Ley

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:34

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is very resistant and highly contagious and infects domestic cats and other felids. FPV is particularly widespread among sheltered cats, and is associated with high morbidity a...

    Authors: Isaya Rosaria, Ciccarelli Stefano, Enache Daniela, Specchi Swan, Pesaresi Marco, Ferri Filippo, Porporato Federico, Auriemma Edoardo, Contiero Barbara, Luigi M Coppola and Zini Eric

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:20

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Endocrinopathic, or hyperinsulinaemia-associated laminitis (HAL) is a common and debilitating equine foot disease, and although no pharmacological treatments are registered, several are under development. To e...

    Authors: A. Meier, J. McGree, R. Klee, J. Preuß, D. Reiche, M. de Laat and M. Sillence

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:16

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Hibernation is a physiological and behavioural adaptation that permits survival during periods of reduced food availability and extreme environmental temperatures. This is achieved through cycles of metabolic ...

    Authors: Fredrik A. F. Markussen, Vebjørn J. Melum, Béatrice Bothorel, David G. Hazlerigg, Valérie Simonneaux and Shona H. Wood

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:14

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Fecundity is important for farm blue fox (Vulpes lagopus), who with asthenospermia have be a problem in some of farms in China. A key symptom of asthenospermia is decreased sperm motility. The decreased secreting...

    Authors: Ping Wu, Tao-lin Liu, Ling-ling Li, Zhi-ping Liu, Li-hong Tian and Zhi-jun Hou

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:12

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Laminitis is a common and serve disease which caused by inflammation and pathological changes of the laminar junction. However, the pathologic mechanism remains unclear. In this study we aimed to investigate c...

    Authors: Maimaiti Tuniyazi, Junying He, Jian Guo, Shuang Li, Naisheng Zhang, Xiaoyu Hu and Yunhe Fu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2021 17:11

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Transition period (TP) is characterised by physiological and metabolic changes contributing to immunodysregulation. Since knowledge about this period in sheep is scarce, we analysed changes in selected immune ...

    Authors: Mona H. Ahmed, Mirja R. Wilkens, Bernd Möller, Martin Ganter, Gerhard Breves and Hans-Joachim Schuberth

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:484

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) is a retrovirus that causes severe immunosuppression in poultry. Animals grow slowly under conditions of oxidative stress. In addition, long-term oxidative stress can impair i...

    Authors: Dahan Yang, Chenhui Zhao, Meixi Zhang, Shujun Zhang, Jie Zhai, XueLi Gao, Chaonan Liu, Xiaoping Lv and Shimin Zheng

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:483

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly transmissible disease that leads to vast economic losses in many countries. Prevention using inactivated vaccines is one effective measure used to control FMD. Unfortun...

    Authors: Peng Wu, Yunfeng Zhang, Xinyue Yin, Yanhua He, Qian Zhang and Chuangfu Chen

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:474

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Left displaced abomasum (LDA) occurs at high frequency in the early postpartum period and can affect production performance of dairy cows. Clinical diagnosis of LDA is usually done by abdominal auscultation an...

    Authors: Yuxiang Song, Juan J Loor, Chenchen Zhao, Dan Huang, Xiliang Du, Xiaobing Li, Zhe Wang, Guowen Liu and Xinwei Li

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:470

    Content type: Research article

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  21. It has been widely accepted that there is a significant difference in peripheral blood oxygen between arteries and veins. Therefore, arterial blood has been collected for blood gas analysis, and venous blood, ...

    Authors: Jia-yu Wang, Yu-bo Wang, Kun Liu, Xiao-jun Bi and Jie Sun

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:467

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Dehydration has deleterious effects in many species, but camels tolerate long periods of water deprivation without serious health compromise. The kidney plays crucial role in water conservation, however, some ...

    Authors: Mahmoud A. Ali, Hassan Abu Damir, Osman M. Ali, Naheed Amir, Saeed Tariq, Michael P. Greenwood, Panjiao Lin, Benjamin Gillard, David Murphy and Abdu Adem

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:458

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRFs), as transcriptional regulatory factors, play important roles in regulating the expression of type I IFN and IFN- stimulated genes (ISGs) in innate immune responses. I...

    Authors: Yaoyao Zhu, Shijuan Shan, Huaping Zhao, Rongrong Liu, Hui Wang, Xinping Chen, Guiwen Yang and Hua Li

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:450

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The problem of transmission of intestinal microorganisms to tissues occurs when intestinal epithelial cells do not adhere tightly (tight junction), which is caused by improper nutrition, usually associated wit...

    Authors: Łukasz Wlazło, Wojciech Łopuszyński, Bożena Nowakowicz-Dębek, Mateusz Ossowski and Hanna Bis-Wencel

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:434

    Content type: Case Report

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  25. H9N2 Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) raises public health concerns and its eradication in poultry becomes even more important in preventing influenza. AJSAF is a purified active saponin fraction f...

    Authors: Hongxiang Sun, Liyan Fei, Binnian Zhu and Minghua Shi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:427

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) is an antioxidant enzyme, whose activity decreases during the acute phase response in many species. Little is known about PON-1 and its role as a negative acute phase protein during septi...

    Authors: Donatella Scavone, Micaela Sgorbini, Alexandre S. Borges, José P. Oliveira-Filho, Valentina Vitale and Saverio Paltrinieri

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:422

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Congenital goiter is a common thyroid metabolic disorder characterized by low levels of thyroid hormone, subsequent secretion of excess thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pituitary gland, and compensat...

    Authors: Jinling Wang, Yulin Ding, Jirintai Sulijid, Li Zhao, Shoufeng Lu, Xiaoyu Wang and Yonghong Liu

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:414

    Content type: Case Report

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  28. Meckel’s diverticula are a rare cause of small intestinal strangulation, diagnosed at laparotomy or necropsy. This congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract originates from a remnant of the vitelline du...

    Authors: E. Stas, L. Kranenburg, P. Witt, J. de Grauw, J. van den Brand, J. Ensink and H. Brommer

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:409

    Content type: Case Report

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  29. Feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS) is a multifactorial immune-mediated disease that can lead to chronic pain, anorexia, and weight loss and has substantial health and welfare effects. Currently, the recom...

    Authors: Lisa A. Mestrinho, Rita Rosa, Patrícia Ramalho, Vasco Branco, Leonor Iglésias, Hugo Pissarra, Ana Duarte and Maria Niza

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:390

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Measurement of adenosine deaminase (ADA) can provide information about cell-mediated immunity. This report’s objective was to study the enzymatic activity of total ADA (tADA) and its isoenzymes ADA1 and ADA2 i...

    Authors: María Dolores Contreras-Aguilar, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Ingrida Monkeviciene, María Martín-Cuervo, Luis Guillermo González-Arostegui, Lorena Franco-Martínez, José Joaquín Cerón, Fernando Tecles and Damián Escribano

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:384

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) develops slowly in aged horses as degeneration of hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons leads to proliferation of pars intermedia (PI) melanotropes through hyperplasia ...

    Authors: Jessica S. Fortin, Matthew J. Benskey, Keith J. Lookingland, Jon S. Patterson, Erin B. Howey, John L. Goudreau and Harold C. Schott II

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:356

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The use of zinc oxide in the form of nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) is of great benefit due to its potent effectiveness and higher bioavailability compared to zinc oxide. This study aimed to investigate the impact of...

    Authors: Sabry Mohamed El-Bahr, Saad Shousha, Ibrahim Albokhadaim, Ahmed Shehab, Wassem Khattab, Omar Ahmed-Farid, Osama El-Garhy, Abdelrahman Abdelgawad, Mehrez El-Naggar, Mahmoud Moustafa, Omnia Badr and Mohammad Shathele

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:349

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Transportation is necessary to introduce new breeds of goats to the farm and move the adult meat goat from the farm to the slaughterhouse. However, these actions may give rise to transport stress. Heat shock p...

    Authors: Wei Hu, Tian Ye, Yanzhen Yang, Ben Liu and Wenya Zheng

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:347

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Equine endometrosis is a chronic degenerative condition, described as endometrial fibrosis that forms in the stroma, under the basement membrane and around the endometrial glands. The role of lysophosphatidic ...

    Authors: Anna Szóstek-Mioduchowska, Natalia Leciejewska, Beata Zelmańska, Joanna Staszkiewicz-Chodor, Graça Ferreira-Dias and Dariusz Skarzynski

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:343

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) are two important pathogens causing Mycoplasma pneumonia of swine (MPS) and porcine circovirus diseases and porcine circovirus-associated diseas...

    Authors: Yu Tao, Rui Yang, Jianhong Shu, Wenqian Zheng, Jian Chen, Yuehong Wu and Yulong He

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:342

    Content type: Research article

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  36. IgE reactivity to fish allergens in atopic dogs, which are used as models for food allergy, has not been elucidated to date. We investigated IgE reactivity to crude extracts and purified allergens derived from...

    Authors: Ichiro Imanishi, Jumpei Uchiyama, Keijiro Mizukami, Junichi Kamiie, Keigo Kurata, Keita Iyori, Masato Fujimura, Kuniyoshi Shimakura, Koji Nishifuji and Masahiro Sakaguchi

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:341

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Blood profile testing is commonly used to monitor herd health status, diagnose disorders, and predict the risk of diseases in cows and calves, with subsequent optimization the production of dairy herds. By und...

    Authors: Hussein Awad Hussein, Jan-Peter Thurmann and Rudolf Staufenbiel

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:327

    Content type: Research article

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  38. African horse sickness (AHS) is a serious viral disease of equids resulting in the deaths of many equids in sub-Saharan Africa that has been recognized for centuries. This has significant economic impact on th...

    Authors: Marina Rodríguez, Sunitha Joseph, Martin Pfeffer, Rekha Raghavan and Ulrich Wernery

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:322

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Portal hypertension is a severe complication caused by various chronic liver diseases. The standard methods for detecting portal hypertension (hepatic venous pressure gradient and free portal pressure) are ava...

    Authors: Jia-Yun Lin, Chi-Hao Zhang, Lei Zheng, Chen-Lu Song, Wen-Sheng Deng, Yi-Ming Zhu, Li Zheng, Li-Zhong Wu, Long-Ci Sun and Meng Luo

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:308

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Dogs’ saliva is a complex mixture of inorganic and organic constituents, rich in proteins. Therefore, knowing the saliva composition of these animals is extremely important to identify the presence of proteins...

    Authors: Mayara Bringel, Paula Karine Jorge, Priscila Amanda Francisco, Cadance Lowe, Robinson Sabino-Silva, Bella Luna Colombini-Ishikiriama, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira Machado and Walter Luiz Siqueira

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:298

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Biochemical and haematological parameters have not been determined in Bactrian camels kept at high altitude. Therefore, this study was undertaken to characterise different physiological, haematological, bioche...

    Authors: Dolker Lamo, Geeta Gahlawat, Sunil Kumar, Vijay K. Bharti, Puneet Ranjan, Deepak Kumar and Om Prakash Chaurasia

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:291

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Culicoides hypersensitivity (CH) is induced in horses by salivary allergens of Culicoides midges. In Iceland, the causal Culicoides species for CH are not present. Previous epidemiological data indicated that Ice...

    Authors: Fahad Raza, Renata Ivanek, Heather Freer, Dania Reiche, Horst Rose, Sigurbjörg Torsteinsdóttir, Vilhjálmur Svansson, Sigríður Björnsdóttir and Bettina Wagner

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:283

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Data on gamma-delta (γδ) T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of dogs are scant, related only to healthy pure breed dogs and limited to a restricted age range. The aim of the study was to investigate the modu...

    Authors: Cristina Marchetti, Paolo Borghetti, Antonio Cacchioli, Luca Ferrari, Federico Armando, Attilio Corradi and Anna Maria Cantoni

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:278

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is an etiologic pathogen of feline panleukopenia that infects all members of Felidae including tigers (Panthera tigris). Vaccinations against FPV among wild felid species have lon...

    Authors: Chanakan Areewong, Amarin Rittipornlertrak, Boondarika Nambooppha, Itsarapan Fhaikrue, Tawatchai Singhla, Chollada Sodarat, Worapat Prachasilchai, Preeyanat Vongchan and Nattawooti Sthitmatee

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:275

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in cattle. A prototype subunit vaccine is being developed, however, there is currently no diagnostic test that...

    Authors: Harrison O. Lutta, David Odongo, Arshad Mather, Jose Perez-Casal, Andrew Potter, Volker Gerdts, Emil M. Berberov, Tracy Prysliak, Martina Kyallo, Alexander Kipronoh, Moses Olum, Roger Pelle and Jan Naessens

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:236

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Emergence of both viral zoonoses from bats and diseases that threaten bat populations has highlighted the necessity for greater insights into the functioning of the bat immune system. Particularly when conside...

    Authors: Jiri Pikula, Tomas Heger, Hana Bandouchova, Veronika Kovacova, Monika Nemcova, Ivana Papezikova, Vladimir Piacek, Renata Zajíčková and Jan Zukal

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:232

    Content type: Research article

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  47. In the poultry industry, quantitative analysis of chicken T cell proliferation is important in many biological applications such as drug screening, vaccine production, and cytotoxicity assessment. Several assa...

    Authors: Karla Lucía F. Alvarez, Astrid Poma-Acevedo, Manolo Fernández-Sánchez and Manolo Fernández-Díaz

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:230

    Content type: Methodology article

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  48. The aim of the study has been to compare the effect of dietary supplementation of β-1,3/1,6-glucan, Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria or their mixture on the growth performance, selected parameters of the immune s...

    Authors: Barbara Kazuń, Joanna Małaczewska, Krzysztof Kazuń, Rafał Kamiński, Dobrochna Adamek-Urbańska and Joanna Żylińska-Urban

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:216

    Content type: Research article

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  49. Using probiotics have become popular. They are considered an alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoters (AGP). Probiotics are supplemented into animal feed for improving growth performance along with preventin...

    Authors: Sabreen Ezzat Fadl, Ghada Ahmed El-Gammal, Osama Atia Sakr, Aly A. B. S. Salah, Ayman Ali Atia, Abdelbary Mohammed Prince and Abdelhaleem Mohamed Hegazy

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:204

    Content type: Research article

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  50. Canine parvovirus (CPV) is now recognized as a serious threat to the dog breeding industry worldwide. Currently used CPV vaccines all have their specific drawbacks, prompting a search for alternative safe and ...

    Authors: Dao Chang, Yangkun Liu, Yangyang Chen, Xiaomin Hu, Andrey Burov, Alexey Puzyr, Vladimir Bondar and Lunguang Yao

    Citation: BMC Veterinary Research 2020 16:202

    Content type: Research article

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