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Table 6 Descriptive statistics of the study population. Frequency (%) and mean age (range and number of bears with age data) at arrival from bile farms and initial sampling (BE and FNE bears) and at time of sampling (ZOO and FR bears) are reported

From: Metabolic derangements and reduced survival of bile-extracted Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus)

 Females (%)Males (%)Mean age (yrs) (range)
Bile-extracted(n = 244)151 (62)93 (38)9 (3–30, n = 218)
Farm-not-extracted(n = 97)54 (56)43 (44)5 (1–18, n = 25)
Zoo(n = 20)11 (55)9 (45)7 (1–20, n = 11)
Free-range(n = 25)9 (36)16 (64)7 (3–15, n = 18)
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