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Table 3 ANCOVA Model 2A: Bile-Extracted, Farm-Not-Extracted, Zoo, and Free-Range data adjusting for sex and age (log transformed)

From: Metabolic derangements and reduced survival of bile-extracted Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus)

Serum/Hematology ParametersObsBear Group (p-value)InteractionsLevelDifferenceSELower CIUpper CIp-value
SexAge
ALT2570.0004BE-FNE0.4730.1450.1820.7640.001c
BE-Zoo0.5520.2320.0861.0180.020c
BE-FR0.3570.1540.0490.6650.023c
GGT236< 0.0001BE-FNE1.0830.2040.6721.493< 0.0001c
BE-Zoo2.2150.3191.5752.856< 0.0001c
BE-FR2.1090.2121.6832.536< 0.0001c
ALKP239< 0.0001BE-FNE0.1230.165−0.2090.4560.480c
BE-Zoo−1.3810.260−1.903− 0.858< 0.0001c
BE-FR−0.1390.173−0.4860.2080.444c
LDH1990.0004BE-FNE− 0.0780.111− 0.3010.1440.5035c
BE-Zoo−0.3450.163− 0.672− 0.0180.039c
BE-FR− 0.4330.109−0.653− 0.2140.0001c
CREA247 0.0238F,BE-F,FNE− 0.1140.089− 0.3860.1580.904b
F,BE-F,Zoo0.0070.148−0.4450.4591.000b
F,BE-F,FR0.2810.118−0.0800.6420.256b
M,BE-M,FNE0.2170.127−0.1710.6050.678b
M,BE-M,Zoo0.3020.191−0.2830.8870.763b
M,BE-M,FR0.0350.102− 0.2770.3461.000b
ALB259< 0.0001BE-FNE0.0530.033−0.0130.1180.115c
BE-Zoo0.3680.0530.2620.475< 0.0001c
BE-FR0.2140.0350.1430.284< 0.0001c
GLOB258< 0.0001BE-FNE−0.0550.054−0.1640.0530.3265c
BE-Zoo−0.3220.087−0.496− 0.1470.0003c
BE-FR−0.2180.058−0.334−0.1030.0002c
PCV2470.0299BE-FNE0.0680.046−0.0250.1610.154c
BE-Zoo−0.1480.074− 0.2960.0010.051c
BE-FR−0.0730.049−0.1720.0250.146c
  1. Obs = number of observations; SE = standard error; CI = confidence interval; ALT = alanine aminotransferase; GGT = gamma glutamyl transferase; ALKP = alkaline phosphatase; LDH = lactate dehydrogenase; CREA = creatinine; ALB = albumin; GLOB = globulin; PCV = packed cell volume; BE = bile-extracted; FNE = farm-not-extracted; FR = free-range; F = female; M = male; Hib = hibernation season (December–April); Non = non-hibernation season (May–November); “- -” indicates p-values > 0.05 and denotes interaction terms removed by stepwise selection, resulting in the reported significant p-values listed under Bear Group or Interaction columns after the other interactions terms were removed from the model; bTukey HSD, cDunnett
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