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Table 2 Temporal and Geographic distribution of equine samples from Gauteng Province assessed for antimicrobial susceptibility, 2007–2012

From: An Exploratory Descriptive Study of Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Staphylococcus Spp. Isolated from Horses Presented at a Veterinary Teaching Hospital

  All Samples Processed (n = 1027) Staphylococcus positive samples (n = 123) AMRc Isolates (n = 64) MDRd Isolates (n = 35)
%b 95% CIa % 95% CIa % 95% CIa % 95% CIa
Season
 Summer 40.8 37.8, 43.8 10.0 7.4, 13.3 64.3 48.6, 77.4 38.1 24.6, 53.8
 Autumn 18.6 16.3, 21.1 14.1 9.9, 19.9 29.6 15.2, 49.6 14.8 5.5, 34.2
 Winter 25.0 22.5, 27.8 12.1 8.6, 16.7 58.1 40.0, 74.2 41.9 25.8, 60.0
 Spring 15.6 13.5, 17.9 14.4 9.7, 20.7 47.8 28.3, 68.1 8.7 2.1, 29.9
Year
 2007 34.1 31.2, 37.0 7.7 5.3, 11.0 55.6 36.4, 73.2 14.8 5.5, 34.2
 2008 15.5 13.4, 17.8 8.2 4.8, 13.6 53.8 27.0, 78.6 15.4 3.6, 47.0
 2009 16.1 13.9, 18.4 12.1 7.9, 18.1 55.0 32.9, 75.3 35.0 17.2, 58.3
 2010 8.8 7.2, 10.7 13.3 7.7., 22.1 33.3 12.4, 63.9 8.3 1.0, 44.1
 2011 7.1 5.7, 8.9 6.8 2.9, 15.5 60.0 16.6, 91.9 20.0 2.1, 74.8
 2012 18.5 16.2, 21.0 24.2 18.6, 30.8 52.2 37.7, 66.3 43.5 29.8, 58.2
Municipality
 Johannesburg 20.0 17.6, 22.5 11.7 7.6, 16.9 54.2 34.0, 73.0 33.3 17.2, 54.5
 Tshwane 61.2 58.2, 64.2 11.6 9.2, 14.4 49.3 37.9, 60.8 26.0 16.5, 37.6
 Ekurhuleni 10.1 8.4, 12.1 10.6 5.4, 18.1 63.6 32.3, 86.5 36.4 13.5, 67.7
 Sedibeng 2.4 1.6, 3.6 20.0 6.8, 40.7 40.0 5.3, 85.3 20.0 0.5, 71.6
 West Rand 6.2 4.9, 7.9 10.0 7.8, 26.9 60.0 26.3,87.8 30.0 6.7, 65.2
  1. a95% confidence interval
  2. bPercent
  3. cAMR: Antimicrobial resistant (defined as resistance to at least one antimicrobial)
  4. dMDR: Multidrug resistant (defined as resistance to at least three classes of antimicrobials; includes a subset of AMR isolates)