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Table 1 Calving classification in the GSM-monitored animals (HMO, heifers; MMO, multiparous cows)

From: Evaluation of remote monitoring of parturition in dairy cattle as a new tool for calving management

Cause of dystocia HMO (n = 60) MMO (n = 60) Calving classification HMO (n = 60) MMO (n = 60)
0 Eutocia 40 (66.7%) 46 (76.6%)
1 8 (13.3%) 3 (5.0%) Mild dystocia 17 (28.3%) 12 (20.0%)
2 9 (15.0%) 9 (15.0%)
3 3 (5.0%) 1 (1.7%) Severe dystocia 3 (5.0%) 2 (3.4%)
4 - 1 (1.7%)
  1. 0 = eutocia or no assistance;
  2. 1 = delay of the second stage of labour;
  3. 2 = foetal malposition;
  4. 3 = foetal–pelvic disproportion;
  5. 4 = vulvar or cervical stenosis and uterine torsion.