- Research article
- Open Access
Expression and characterization of highly antigenic domains of chicken anemia virus viral VP2 and VP3 subunit proteins in a recombinant E. colifor sero-diagnostic applications
© Lai et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 13 March 2013
Accepted: 8 August 2013
Published: 13 August 2013
Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is an important viral pathogen that causes anemia and severe immunodeficiency syndrome in chickens worldwide. Generally, CAV infection occurs via vertical transmission in young chicks that are less than two weeks old, which are very susceptible to the disease. Therefore, epidemiological investigations of CAV infection and/or the evaluation of the immunization status of chickens is necessary for disease control. Up to the present, systematically assessing viral protein antigenicity and/or determining the immunorelevant domain(s) of viral proteins during serological testing for CAV infection has never been performed. The expression, production and antigenic characterization of CAV viral proteins such as VP1, VP2 and VP3, and their use in the development of diagnostic kit would be useful for CAV infection prevention.
Three CAV viral proteins VP1, VP2 and VP3 was separately cloned and expressed in recombinant E. coli. The purified recombinant CAV VP1, VP2 and VP3 proteins were then used as antigens in order to evaluate their reactivity against chicken sera using indirect ELISA. The results indicated that VP2 and VP3 show good immunoreactivity with CAV-positive chicken sera, whereas VP1 was found to show less immunoreactivity than VP2 and VP3. To carry out the further antigenic characterization of the immunorelevant domains of the VP2 and VP3 proteins, five recombinant VP2 subunit proteins (VP2-435N, VP2-396N, VP2-345N, VP2-171C and VP2-318C) and three recombinant VP3 subunit proteins (VP3-123N, VP3-246M, VP3-366C), spanning the defined regions of VP2 and VP3 were separately produced by an E. coli expression system. These peptides were then used as antigens in indirect ELISAs against chicken sera. The results of these ELISAs using truncated recombinant VP2 and VP3 subunit proteins as coating antigen showed that VP2-345N, VP2-396N and VP3-246M gave good immunoreactivity with CAV-positive chicken sera compared to the other subunit proteins. Moreover, the VP2-396N and VP2-345 based ELISAs had better sensitivity (97.5%) and excellent specificity (100%) during serodiagnosis testing using a mean plus three standard deviations cut-off. The VP3-246M based ELISA showed a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 100% at the same cut-off value.
This is the first report to systematically assess the antigenic characteristics of CAV viral proteins for sero-diagnosis purposes. Purified recombinant VP2-396N and VP2-345N subunit proteins, which span defined regions of VP2, were demonstrated to have good antigenicity and higher sensitivities than VP3-246M and were able to recognize CAV-positive chicken serum using an ELISA assay. The defined antigenicity potential of these chimeric subunit proteins produced by expression in E. coli seem to have potential and could be useful in the future for the development of the CAV diagnostic tests based on a subunit protein ELISA system.
Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is the member of the genus Gyrovirus of the family Circoviridae, and the genome consists of a circular single-stranded 2.3 kb DNA molecule . CAV was first isolated in 1979 in Japan and is the major agent responsible for a disease causing severe anemia and immunosuppression . The characteristic symptoms of the disease include aplasia of the bone marrow and the destruction of T lymphoid tissue, which has been shown histopathologically after CAV infection [3, 4]. Generally, CAV as the causative agent of chicken anemia disease affects one-day old chicks that lack maternal antibodies . Mortalities as high as 55% and morbidities as high as 80% have been described when chicks are infected with CAV .
The CAV virion is an icosahedral, nonenveloped and 18 nm diameter particle . The 2.3 kb CAV genome encodes three viral proteins, VP1, VP2 and VP3 [1, 2]. The VP1 protein is the sole structural protein assembled into the CAV capsid and has a size of 51 kDa . VP2 is a 24 kDa protein that has phosphatase activity with dual specificity . VP3 is a 13 kDa protein that shows apoptotic activity and is able to induces apoptosis within infected chicken cells and human tumor cell lines . Immunogenicity studies have shown that VP1 and VP2 are crucial components for the elicitation of host-produced virus neutralizing antibodies in chickens . Therefore, VP1 and VP2 have previously been thought to be good candidates for use as immunogens when developing subunit vaccines or diagnostic kits [9, 10]. Up to the present, several different systems have been developed to express the three CAV viral proteins for use in serological tests or for the development of diagnostic ELISA kits to detect the presence of CAV antibodies [11–15]. In addition, VP2 and VP3 have been applied as target antigen to generate diagnostic monoclonal antibodies for immunological characterization and for the development of CAV detection kits [16, 17]. To successfully develop the above areas, the further antigenic characterization of the CAV viral proteins is required if a useful diagnostic kit is to be developed. However, so far, the VP1, VP2 and VP3 proteins of CAV have never been used as antigens to assess comparatively their antigenicity against chicken sera.
In this study, we employed recombinant VP1, VP2 and VP3 proteins from CAV that were produced using E. coli to characterize their antigenicity with respect to chicken sera; the aim was to assess their usefulness for their possible immunological applications. Herein, recombinant VP2 and VP3 proteins were able to be recognized as having high antigenicity using clinical sera samples infected with CAV. In addition, various recombinant VP2 and VP3 truncated subunit proteins were also produced using E. coli and these were then systemically assessed for their antigenicity with respect to chicken sera; the aim being to evaluate the two proteins for potential immunorelevant domains. Finally, the productivities of three of the VP2 and VP3 subunit proteins, namely VP2-345N, VP2-396N and VP3-246M, were evaluated and compared. Using these findings, it was possible to create a VP2 subunit based ELISA that had high specificity and sensitivity; this has the potential to become a valuable immunological tool for the detection of CAV infection.
Expression, purification and antigenic characterization of the CAV VP1, VP2 and VP3 proteins in an E. coliexpression system
Screening and antigenic characterization against chicken sera of VP2 and VP3 subunit proteins
Diagnostic application of an ELISA based system using VP2-345N, VP2-396N and VP3-246M for the detection of CAV infection
Summary of specificities and sensitivities of three protein subunits
Indirect ELISA to viral protein subunits
Cut-off with mean + 2 S.D.
Cut 0ff with mean + 3 S.D.
In this study, we have successfully produced in E. coli VP1 protein, VP2 protein, VP3 protein as well as a series of VP2 and VP3 subunit proteins in order to evaluate their antigenicity with respect to specific CAV-positive chicken sera. After assessment of their antigenicity against chicken sera, the VP2 and VP3 proteins were demonstrated to have higher antigenicity than the VP1 protein. In previous reports, VP1 and VP2 protein have been shown to elicit virus neutralizing antibodies in the host . Thus, VP1 and VP2 were thought to be good candidates as immunogens for vaccine development or diagnostic application. However, the present antigenic analysis indicates that CAV VP1 protein may not be that useful in serological tests. During CAV infection, VP2 and VP3 are detected in chicken cells within 12 hours post-infection, while VP1 is only detected at 24 hours post-infection . This phenomenon indicates that the titers of antibodies against CAV viral proteins produced in the chicken sera might have different levels that correspond to either exposure time or to the amount of viral protein present in the infected chicken. At present, there are no reports available that describe the IgG titer profiles in the chicken sera against the VP1, VP2 and VP3 proteins. Thus, a lower titer of anti-VP1 IgG in chicken sera might be present and this would result in a lower antigenicity when tested by ELISA.
Using a subunit protein rather than an intact virion as coating antigen during the development of serological test has some advantages; these include cost-effectiveness, time-saving and ease of antigen production. Indeed, currently, the greatest problem when developing a serological assay is identifying, obtaining and preparing a suitable antigen. This is especially true if intact virion or viral protein/antigen purified from virus-infected tissue or from cell culture is used. This is because these require tedious processing, including the concentration of supernatant from infected culture medium by continuous zonal centrifugation or by PEG precipitation. Moreover, the source of coating antigen is a crucial consideration when performing large-scaled antigen production. Therefore, using a recombinant subunit protein for serodiagnosis would be much simpler. Up to the present, there have been no reports describing post-translational modification of the native CAV VP1, VP2 and VP3 proteins. Based on this, in the present study, we used a prokaryotic expression system to produce recombinant CAV antigens. By direct engineering of the VP2 and VP3 proteins it was possible to product truncated subunit proteins that are more convenient and seem to be more suitable and more efficient than proteins produced by an insect-baculovirus system or by a transgenic plant approach [9, 12, 18]. When the productivities in E. coli of the recombinant VP2 and VP3 subunit proteins were evaluated, the highest expression levels of the VP2-345N, VP2-396N and VP3-246M proteins, both soluble and insoluble, in E. coli whole cell lysate after IPTG induction for 4 hrs. were determined to be 432.6 mg/L, 334 mg/L and 786.2 mg/L (Additional file 1: Figure S1A), respectively. In addition, a growth profile analysis of these three E. coli strains showed that the VP3-246M expressing strain had the fastest growth rate at 4 hours cultivation after IPTG induction when the three recombinant strains were compared (Additional file 1: Figure S1B). The growth profiles of the VP2-345N and VP2-396N expressing strains in E. coli were almost identical. These findings suggest that production of the VP3-246M protein in E. coli will be the most efficient.
Using an antigenic peptide prediction bioinformatics software program (http://imed.med.ucm.es/Tools/antigenic.pl), the antigenic propensities of VP2 and VP3 were analyzed (data not shown). Seven antigenic determinants were predicted to be present in the VP2 protein and these spanned amino acid residues 29-35 (AQGQVIS), 56-62 (KFTAVGN), 77-97 (NHSIAVWLRECSRSHAKICNC), 104-110 (WFQECAG), 119-132 (SLEEAILRPLRVQS), 137-145 (RKLDYHYSQ) and 195-204 (DSGIVDELLG). Only four antigenic determinants were predicted to be present in the VP3 protein and these peptides spanned amino acid residues 11-18 (GPSTVFRP), 24-32 (PLETPHCRE), 34-51 (RIGIAGITITLSLCGCAN) and 86-94 (KKRSCDPSE). Thus VP2-435N consists of at least six antigenic determinants. However, the antigenic reactivity of VP2-435N was lower than that of VP2-345N and VP2-396N (Figure 5). The result of these expressed recombinant proteins might not be correctly folfed to that of the native protein; in such circumstances all of the antigenic regions of the subunit protein might not be exposed completely on the protein surface. Moreover, higher immunoreactivity was observed with the N-terminal containing VP2 subunit proteins, which suggests that there are functional antigenic sites located within the N-terminal region of this protein. In a previous study, a comparison of the amino acid sequences of the CAV VP2 protein across the different CAV isolates available in the GenBank demonstrated extremely high identity between these isolates . In such circumstances, N-terminal containing VP2 subunit proteins containing discriminating immunorelevant epitopes should be useful when developing subunit protein-based ELISAs for the detection of CAV specific antibodies.
VP3-123N has at three predicted antigenic determinants, which contrast with VP3-246M, which has only one predicted antigenic determinant; nevertheless, the antigenic reactivity of VP3-246M was found to be higher than that of the other VP3 subunit proteins, VP3-123N and VP3-366C. This may indicate that the central domain of the VP3 protein, VP3-246M, is a major factor in antigenic recognition. Taking the above results together, the findings suggest that VP2-345N, VP2-396N, VP2-435N and VP3-246M all seems to be structurally and antigenically very similar to their native protein, at least to some degree (Additional file 1: Figure S3). Consequently, our findings demonstrate that the above VP2 and VP3 subunit proteins are likely to be good candidates for sero-diagnostic application in the future.
This is first report to describe the expression, purification and systematically antigenic characterization of CAV viral proteins. Engineered subunit proteins, VP2-345N, VP2-396N and VP3-246M, are likely to be more useful in sero-diagnostic kits for CAV antibodies detection than the full-length native VP2 and VP3 proteins. This is because they should be cost-effectiveness as well as having high antigenicity; they thus ought to be useful as coating antigens when used in immune-enzymatic systems.
Bacterial strains and inoculation
Two E. coli strains, BL21 (DE3) and BL21(DE3)-pLysS were purchased from Invitrogen Life Technologies (Carlsbad, CA) and Stratagene (La Jolla, CA), respectively. Strain activation was performed using 10 ml of LB medium in 50 ml flasks by growing overnight at 37°C. The overnight culture were then inoculated into 50 ml LB medium and grown at 37°C for 3 h by which time the optical density of the culture had reach 0.5 of OD600 and could be used for competent cell preparation and protein expression.
Construction of the expression vectors
The primers sequences used for insert DNA amplification of the VP2 and VP3 subunit genes by PCR
VP2-115C del XhoI
VP2-131C del XhoI
VP2-144C del XhoI
VP2-170N del EcoRI
VP2-111N del EcoRI
VP3-243C del XhoI
VP3-123N del EcoRI
VP3-120C del XhoI
VP3-246N del EcoRI
Expression and production of the CAV viral proteins, VP1, VP2 and VP3 as well as the truncated VP2/VP3 subunit proteins in the recombinant E. coli
The recombinant E. coli strains BL-21 (DE3) and BL21(DE3)-pLysS containing the constructs as shown in Figures 1 and 4(a) were used for protein induction and expression. The recombinant strains were grown overnight in LB medium in the presence of ampicillin (50 μg/mL) at 37°C. Then 0.5 mL of overnight culture was inoculated into 50 mL LB medium and grown at 37°C for 3 hrs. by which time the optical density of culture had reached 0.5. At this point, isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyronoside (IPTG) at 0.1 mM was added to the culture to induce protein expression, which continued for 4 hrs. The presence of expressed recombinant proteins were examined by 12.5% SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting using monoclonal anti-GST antibody or CAV-infected positive sera.
Purification of recombinant CAV viral proteins using GST affinity chromatography
To purify the recombinant CAV viral proteins, both VP1, VP2 and VP3 as well as the truncated VP2 or VP3 subunit proteins, the cells were spun down from 50 mL of culture supernatant and resuspended in GST resin binding buffer (140 mM NaCl, 2.7 mM KCl, 10 mM Na2HPO4, 1.8 mM KH2PO4, pH 7.3). The harvested cells were disrupted and prepared as described previously . The resulting cell supernatant was loaded onto a GSTrap FF affinity column (GE healthcare, Piscataway, NJ) to allow protein purification using the optical unit of a liquid chromatography system (AKTAprime plus, GE Healthcare BioScience AB, Uppsala, Sweden). The operational conditions were the same as described in a previous study [13, 15]. The total protein concentration of the collected eluent containing the recombinant CAV viral proteins was determined using a Micro BCA kit (Pierce, Rockford, IL) with bovine serum albumin as the reference protein. The purity of the protein sample was analyzed by 12.5% SDS-PAGE and Western-blotting with appropriate antibodies using fraction aliquots.
To compare the antigenicity of the E. coli expressed CAV viral proteins,VP1, VP2 and VP3 as well as the truncated VP2 or VP3 subunit proteins, ELISA assays were performed. The various purified recombinant CAV viral proteins after affinity GST-column purification were used as the coating antigen for the ELISAs. Briefly, same copy numbers per well of diluted VP1, VP2 and VP3 as well as the truncated VP2 or VP3 subunit proteins were used to coat a 96 wells plate for 1 h at 37°C. After washing, A 200 fold dilution of CAV-negative and CAV-positive specific chicken sera, which had been obtained from an experimental farm and had been identified as negative or positive using a commercial ELISA kit (purchased from the IDEXX laboratory Inc.), were added and reacted for another hour at 37°C. Subsequently, following washing, secondary antibodies (peroxidase conjugated affinipure mouse anti-chicken IgG; Jackson) were added and this was followed by color development as described in previously .
Data are expressed as mean±standard deviation, each experiment was performed at least three independent times. The significant of difference between groups was determined using a Scheffe’s S method. Statistical probability of p<0.05 was defined statistically significant. Statistical analysis was performed using SigmaPlot.
This work was supported by the grant from the National Science Council (NSC 95-2313-B-039-004-, NSC96-2313-B-276-001-MY3, NSC101-2321-B-039-007- and NSC102-2321-B-039-007- to Dr. Meng-Shiou Lee), Taiwan.
- Meehan BM, Todd D, Creelan JL, Earle JA, Hoey EM, McNulty MS: Characterization of viral DNAs from cells infected with chicken anemia agent: sequence analysis of the cloned replicative form and transfection capabilities of cloned genome fragments. Arch Virol. 1992, 124: 301-319. 10.1007/BF01309811.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yuasa N, Taniguchi T, Yoshida I: Isolation and some characteristics of an agent inducing anemia in chicks. Avian Dis. 1979, 23: 366-385. 10.2307/1589567.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yuasa N, Imai K, Watanabe K, Saito F, Abe M, Komi K: Aetiological examination of an outbreak of haemorrhagic syndrome in a broiler flock in Japan. Avian Pathol. 1987, 16: 521-526. 10.1080/03079458708436401.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lucio BA, Schat KA, Shivaprasad HL: Identification of the chicken anemia agent, reproduction of the disease, and serological survey in the United States. Avian Dis. 1990, 34: 146-153. 10.2307/1591346.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yuasa N, Noguchi T, Furuta K, Yoshida I: Maternal antibody and its effect on the susceptibility of chicks to chicken anemia agent. Avian Dis. 1980, 24: 197-201. 10.2307/1589779.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hsu JP, Lee ML, Lu YP, Hung HT, Hung HH, Chein MS: Chicken infectious anemia in layer. J Chin Soc Vet Sci. 2002, 28: 153-160.Google Scholar
- Douglas AJ, Phenix K, Mawhinney KA, Todd D, Mackie DP, Curran WL: Identification of a 24 kDa protein expressed by chicken anaemia virus. J Gen Virol. 1995, 76: 1557-1562. 10.1099/0022-1317-76-7-1557.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Noteborn MH: Chicken anemia virus induced apoptosis: underlying molecular mechanisms. Vet Microbiol. 2004, 98: 89-94. 10.1016/j.vetmic.2003.10.003.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Noteborn MH, Verschueren CA, Koch G, Van der Eb AJ: Simultaneous expression of recombinant baculovirus-encoded chicken anemia virus (CAV) proteins VP1 and VP2 is required for formation of the CAV-specific neutralizing epitope. J Gen Virol. 1998, 79: 3073-3077.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Koch G, van Roozelaar DJ, Verschueren CA, van der Eb AJ, Noteborn MHM: Immunogenic and protective properties of chicken anemia virus proteins expressed by baculovirus. Vaccine. 1995, 13: 763-770. 10.1016/0264-410X(94)00034-K.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pallister J, Fahey KJ, Sheppard M: Cloning and sequencing of the chicken anaemia virus (CAV) ORF-3 gene, and the development of an ELISA for the detection of serum antibody to CAV. Vet Microbiol. 1994, 39: 167-178. 10.1016/0378-1135(94)90097-3.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Iwata N, Fujino M, Tuchiya K, Iwata A, Otaki Y, Ueda S: Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant chicken anemia virus proteins expressed in a baculovirus vector system. J Vet Med Sci. 1998, 60: 175-180. 10.1292/jvms.60.175.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee MS, Lien YY, Feng SH, Huang RL, Tsai MC, Chang WT, Chen HJ: Production of chicken anemia virus (CAV) VP1 and VP2 protein expressed by recombinant Escherichia coli. Process Biochem. 2009, 44: 390-395. 10.1016/j.procbio.2008.11.016.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee MS, Chou YM, Lien YY, Lin MK, Chang WT, Lee HZ, Lee MS, Lai GH, Chen HJ, Haung CH, Lin WH: Production and diagnostic application of a purified, E. coli-expressed, serological specific chicken anemia virus antigen VP3. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2011, 58: 232-239. 10.1111/j.1865-1682.2010.01200.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee MS, Hseu YC, Lai GH, Chang WT, Chen HJ, Huang CH, Lee MS, Wang MY, Kao JY, You BJ, Lin WH, Lien YY, Lin MK: High Yield Expression in a Recombinant E. coli of a Codon Optimized Chicken Anemia Virus Capsid Protein VP1 useful for Vaccine Development. Microb Cell Fact. 2011, 10: 56-10.1186/1475-2859-10-56.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Brentano L, Lazzarin S, Bassi SS, Klein TAP, Schat KA: Detection of chicken anemia virus in the gonads and in the progeny of broiler hens with high neutralizing antibody titers. Vet Microbiol. 2005, 105: 65-72. 10.1016/j.vetmic.2004.09.019.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang X, Gao H, Gao Y, Fu C, Wang Z, Lu G, Cheng Y, Wang X: Mapping of epitopes of VP2 protein of chicken anemia virus using monoclonal antibodies. J Virol Methods. 2007, 143: 194-199. 10.1016/j.jviromet.2007.03.016.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lacorte C, Lohuis H, Goldbach R, Prins M: Assessing the expression of chicken anemia virus proteins in plants. Virus Res. 2007, 129: 80-86. 10.1016/j.virusres.2007.06.020.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cheng JH, Sheu SC, Lien YY, Lee MS, Chen HJ, Su WH, Lee MS: Identification of the NLS and NES motifs of VP2 from chicken anemia virus and the interaction of VP2 with mini-chromosome maintenance protein 3. BMC Vet Res. 2012, 8: 15-10.1186/1746-6148-8-15.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar