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Table 4 Multivariable logistic regression of farm-based factors associated with serological Q fever infection on animal level

From: Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010

Variable Category N (%) Prev (%) aOR 95% CI
Distance to the nearest bulk milk PCR-positive farm (km) < 8 km 1088 50.0 33.2 3.2 1.4-7.3
  ≥ 8 km 1089 50.0 9.73 Ref  
Cattle density per km2 in farm municipality (excl meat calves) < 100 643 29.5 11.2 Ref  
  ≥ 100 1534 70.5 25.8 4.5 2.0-9.9
Combat of nuisance animals (e.g. wild birds) in 2008 Yes, by covering air spaces 349 16.0 38.7 3.7 1.8-7.9
  By other ways or not applicable 1828 84.0 18.2 Ref  
Signs of vermin (mice, rats, birds) in roughage or litter during past 12 months Unknown 364 16.7 41.8 3.3 1.4-7.9
  Known (yes or no) 1813 83.3 17.4 Ref  
Cat(s) in goat stable Yes 786 36.1 24.2 2.6 1.2-5.6
  No/unknown 1391 63.9 19.9 Ref  
Use of windbreak curtain and/or windshields Windbreak curtain 799 36.7 30.5 2.8 1.2-6.7
  Only wind shields 937 43.0 18.8 1.7 0.7-4.1
  None 441 4.9 10.6 Ref  
Artificial insemination Yes 572 26.3 34.6 2.3 1.2-4.7
  No 1585 72.8 17.0   
  1. Factors associated with Q fever with their frequency (N), animal prevalence (Prev), adjusted odds ratio (aOR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) in the final multivariable model on animal level with random herd effect (2,177 animals from 96 farms; 21.4% positive animals; 43.1% positive farms based on total sample of 123 farms and 2,828 goats)
  2. **within-farm variation accounts for 34.6% of non-explained variance