- Research article
- Open Access
In vitro-generated interspecific recombinants between bovine herpesviruses 1 and 5 show attenuated replication characteristics and establish latency in the natural host
- Maria P Del Medico Zajac†1,
- Sonia A Romera†1, 6,
- María F Ladelfa1, 6,
- Fiorella Kotsias1, 6,
- Fernando Delgado5,
- Julien Thiry2,
- François Meurens3,
- Günther Keil4,
- Etienne Thiry2Email author and
- Benoît Muylkens2
© Zajac et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
Received: 21 December 2010
Accepted: 18 May 2011
Published: 18 May 2011
Interspecific recombinant viruses R1ΔgC and R2ΔgI were isolated after in vitro co-infection with BoHV-1 and BoHV-5, two closely related alphaherpesviruses that infect cattle. The genetic characterization of R1ΔgC and R2ΔgI showed that they are composed of different sections of the parental genomes. The aim of this study was the characterization of the in vivo behavior of these recombinants in the natural host.
Four groups of four 3-month-old calves of both genders were intranasally inoculated with either the recombinant or parental viruses. A control group of two animals was also included. Viral excretion and clinical signs were monitored after infection. Histopathological examination of the central nervous system (CNS) was performed and the establishment of latency in trigeminal ganglia was analyzed by PCR. The humoral response was also evaluated using ELISA tests.
Three out of four animals from the BoHV-5 infected group excreted virus for 4-10 days. Two calves shed R1ΔgC virus for one day. In R2ΔgI and BoHV-1.2ΔgCΔgI groups, infectious virus was isolated only after two or three blind passages. None of the infected animals developed neurological signs, although those infected with BoHV-5 showed histopathological evidence of viral infection. Latent viral DNA was detected in at least one calf from each infected group. Serum and/or mucosal antibodies were detected in all groups.
Both BoHV-1/-5 recombinants and the BoHV-1 parental strain are attenuated in calves, although they are able to replicate in animals at low rates and to establish latent infections.
Bovine herpesviruses 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) are two closely related alphaherpesviruses infecting cattle. BoHV-1 respiratory infection is usually associated with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, abortion, and systemic infection in neonates . BoHV-5 infection induces respiratory and nervous diseases, i.e. meningoencephalitis . Both viruses are neurotropic and establish a life-long latent infection in neurons of sensory ganglia [2, 3].
BoHV-1 infection is present in all continents, although there are differences in prevalence and incidence . In the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand the seroprevalence of BoHV-1 infection is variable but may be very high. BoHV-1 is also present in European countries, where a variety of control programs are carried out. Concerning South American countries, BoHV-1 infection is endemic and the seroprevalence is high . On the other hand, BoHV-5 outbreaks are sporadic and appear to be very restricted in their geographical distribution, being mostly detected in the Southern hemisphere . In Argentina and Brazil, BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 co-circulate and vaccination against BoHV-1 is not obligatory. In addition, cattle co-infection has been recently shown to exist . In this context, in vivo genetic recombination between these two viruses may occur.
Recombination is a frequent event among alphaherpesviruses, enhancing their diversity and modifying virus replication properties in vivo . Although the process of interspecific recombination appears inefficient relative to intraspecific recombination , a natural interspecies recombinant virus between equid herpesviruses 1 (EHV-1) and 4 (EHV-4) has been recently reported after analyzing EHV-1 field strains . Both the recombinant virus and the parental EHV-4 were found to be non-neuropathogenic in the hamster model .
Viruses and cell culture
The viruses used in this study are illustrated in Figure 1. Viral stocks -with high number of passages- were kindly provided by Virology and Immunology laboratory of University of Liege. The viruses were propagated in Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK, ATCC, USA) cells at a low multiplicity of infection as previously described . Total DNA (viral and cell DNA) was prepared from infected cells using an extraction buffer 2× (Tris 200 mM pH 8, EDTA 20 mM pH 8, NaCl 200 mM, SDS 2%, 2-mercaptoethanol 20 mM) (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) and precipitated by alcohol.
Eighteen 3-month-old calves of both genders were randomly separated in four groups of four animals each and one control group of two animals. Their naïve status for BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 exposure was verified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and seroneutralization assays (SN)  and virus isolation from nasal samples upon arrival and before experimental infection. After infection, all groups were strictly isolated from each other in order to prevent spread and contamination with the different virus strains used. Animal care and experimental procedures were performed in accordance with the requirements of the National Institute of Agricultural Technology Ethics Committee (INTA, Argentina).
Calves were infected intranasally (aerosolization) with 3 ml containing a total dose of 106.5 TCID50/ml (1.5 ml in each nostril) of the corresponding viral strain. The control group received 3 ml of cell culture medium. Animals were examined both before the start of the experience and daily after infection by a veterinarian who was not aware of the treatment of individual animals. Respiratory and nervous signs and rectal temperature were recorded. Between days 35-37 post-infection (pi) animals were sedated with acepromazine (Acedan, Holliday Scott S.A., Argentina) by the intramuscular route and then euthanized by barbiturate overdose (Euthanyle, Brouwer, Argentina). Necropsy was performed immediately and encephalon and trigeminal ganglia were dissected.
Sampling procedure, serological and virological analysis
Blood samples were taken on the day of inoculation and then weekly. Serum antibodies against BoHV-1 were detected by using an indirect ELISA and by SN assays .
Nasal samples were collected daily from day 0 to day 18 pi and then twice a week until the end of the experiment and inoculated onto MDBK cell monolayers immediately after collection. Titers were calculated by the Reed and Muench method. Three blind passages were performed on negative samples. Parental and recombinant viral strains were identified either by observation of infected cells with an epifluorescent microscope or by PCR assays using total DNA extracted from infected cells . IgA antibodies in nasal secretions were determined by ELISA as previously described .
Histopathology and detection of latent BoHV DNA in trigeminal ganglia
Samples of CNS (olfactory, frontal, parietal and occipital areas, thalamus, midbrain, pons, obex and cerebellum) and trigeminal ganglion were fixed in 10% buffered formaline solution, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 4 μm and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H/E) for histopathological examination.
Pieces of approximately 100 mg of trigeminal ganglion stored at -70°C were digested and total DNA was extracted using the QIAamp DNA Mini kit (Qiagen, Tecnolab S.A., Argentina). Total DNA was subjected to two PCR reactions [12, 13] in order to examine the presence of viral DNA. PCR was also performed with a set of primers generating a 250 bp fragment from the bovine glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GAPDH), selected as the bovine housekeeping gene. The primers were designated as GAPDH-For (5'-GCA TCG TGG AGG GAC TTA TGA-3') and GAPDH-Rev (5'-GGG CCA TCC ACA GTC TTC TG-3').
Clinical and viral response after intranasal infection of cattle
In order to study the in vivo behavior of the BoHV-1/-5 recombinant viruses R1ΔgC and R2ΔgI (Figure 1), two groups of four animals were intranasally inoculated as described in Materials and Methods. Two other groups were infected accordingly with the parental strains, BoHV-5 and BoHV-1.2ΔgCΔgI. A mock infected control group of two animals was included.
Viral excretion and humoral response after intranasal infection. Detection of viral DNA in trigeminal ganglia (TG)
Days post infection of excretion onset
N° excreting days
Viral DNA in TGb
Viral excretion was observed in three out of four animals from the BoHV-5 infected group for 4-10 days, with peak titers of 4.3 to 5.3 log10 TCID50/ml. In contrast, the tested recombinants and parental BoHV-1.2ΔgCΔgI displayed reduced in vivo replication capacities (Table 1). Two calves shed R1ΔgC virus for one day with excretion titers of 2.3 and 2.5 log10 TCID50/ml, respectively. Concerning the R2ΔgI and BoHV-1.2ΔgCΔgI groups, infectious virus was isolated only after two or three blind passages on cell cultures infected with nasal swabs. The day of excretion onset for each group was variable and is detailed in Table 1. At least one positive isolate was observed in each group.
Post mortem analysis and establishment of latency
To investigate the establishment of latency by the different viruses, trigeminal ganglia were dissected after euthanasia 35 days pi. PCR assays were performed to test for the presence of either BoHV-1 or BoHV-5 latent DNA. In addition, trigeminal ganglia were co-cultured with susceptible cells and monitored for BoHV replication. Since no cytopathic effect developed in the cultures, we concluded that the positive PCR results (Table 1) were due to the presence of latent viral genomes. The presence of viral DNA was observed in at least one calf from each of the infected groups, thus indicating that both the recombinant viruses and the parental strains were able to establish a latent infection in trigeminal ganglia.
Humoral immune response
The immune response specifically raised against BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 after the experimental infection was measured either by ELISA or by the SN assay. Seroconversion was detected in three out of the four BoHV-5-infected animals as well as in one animal from the R1ΔgC group (Table 1). Mucosal IgA was detected in all the infected groups but not in mock-infected calves (Table 1).
In summary, the data show that all the viruses were able to replicate in calves although R1ΔgC, R2ΔgI and parental BoHV-1.2ΔgCΔgI were attenuated in vivo. Detectable virus excretion by animals infected with these viruses was low and none of the infected animals developed clinical signs during the experimental infection.
BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 have been shown to co-circulate in nature and cattle co-infection has been recently demonstrated . Even if the process of interspecific recombination appears inefficient relative to intraspecific recombination, a natural interspecies recombinant virus between EHV-1 and EHV-4 has been reported by analyzing EHV-1 field strains . Therefore, BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 may give rise to interspecific recombinants with unknown biological characteristics in co-infected cattle. Recombination may lead to virulence restoration of attenuated strains or to a decrease in the pathogenicity of parental viruses. Regarding this, there are several reports describing the generation of virulent HSV-1 and PrV intraspecific recombinants [14, 15] and avirulent HSV-1/-2 interspecific recombinants .
The in vivo behavior of the in vitro-generated interspecific recombinant viruses between BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 was investigated in the natural host. According to our experimental data, after nasal infection of calves, R1ΔgC and R2ΔgI are attenuated but able to replicate at low rates and establish latent infections.
According to the genomic characterization performed elsewhere  (Figure 1), most of the genomic background of R1ΔgC virus is homologous to BoHV-5 (63%), including some of the genes associated with the differential pathogenesis between BoHV-5 and BoHV-1 (US7-gI, US8-gE and US9) , whereas R2ΔgI virus is 86% homologous to BoHV-1. Despite their genomic content, both recombinant viruses appear to be attenuated in calves. This may suggest that the BoHV-5 genes enclosed in the US region, the internal and terminal repeats and part of the UL region are not able to confer BoHV-5 in vivo replication properties to R1ΔgC in the genetic background of the parental BoHV-1. However, since the recombinant viruses were obtained by in vitro co-infection between a highly attenuated BoHV-1 strain (tested in this study) and BoHV-5, the evaluation of the association between genetic composition and virulence of these recombinants is limited. Although BoHV-5-infected animals did not present neurological signs, viral excretion and histopathological lesions were observed. Animal age and individual susceptibility, among other factors, could account for the absence of clinical signs in the BoHV-5-infected group . The histological alterations found in the CNS samples from BoHV-5-infected animals were similar to those reported after cattle infection with other BoHV-5 strains [17, 18]. The slight lesions observed in both the recombinants and parental BoHV-1 could be due to unspecific cellular alterations.
Serum and/or mucosal antibodies were detected in all groups, consistently with a previous report showing the induction of nasal IgA in calves after infection with different BoHV-1 strains . However, humoral response was not detected in some animals. The low rate of viral replication could account for the lack of induction of immune response. In addition, the sensitivity of the ELISA tests available could be insufficient to detect a very low antibody response evoked by the recombinant viruses.
The reduced virulence observed in the R1ΔgC and R2ΔgI viruses could be attributed to the high attenuation that the parental BoHV-1ΔgCΔgI has per se. Indeed, different degrees of virulence have been reported among a variety of BoHV-1 wild type  and genetically modified  strains. A genetic characterization of the two BoHV-1/-5 recombinants and parental strains has been recently performed in the whole genome . However, other genetic modifications introduced during the generation of the parental double deleted mutant or in the recombinant isolation process could also account for their in vivo attenuation. Moreover, small modifications in viral genomes can have a deep impact on the in vivo behavior. In this respect, variation of a single amino acid in the polymerase of neuropathogenic EHV-1 strains has been associated with their neurovirulence .
The high in vivo attenuation that the two BoHV-1/5 recombinants showed in cattle indicates that these recombinants might not constitute a major risk of persistence and spread in cattle population. However, in areas where co-infections with virulent strains of BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 exists (Southern hemisphere) the generation of unknown virulence recombinants could occur.
In this study we investigated the in vivo behavior of two interspecific recombinant viruses generated in vitro from closely related alphaherpesviruses infecting the same natural host. Although both recombinants showed reduced virulence following experimental cattle infection, our results demonstrate in vivo replication and establishment of latency of in vitro-generated BoHV-1/-5 recombinants.
Acknowledgements and Funding
The authors are grateful to Diego Soraire and Javier Leiva for their dedication and care of the calves used in the experiments. This study was financially supported by the Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (ANPyCT), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva, Argentina (BID-PICT N°1433).
- Muylkens B, Thiry J, Kirten P, Schynts F, Thiry E: Bovine herpesvirus 1 infection and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. Vet Res. 2007, 38: 181-209. 10.1051/vetres:2006059.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Del Medico Zajac MP, Ladelfa MF, Kotsias F, Muylkens B, Thiry J, Thiry E, Romera SA: Biology of bovine herpesvirus 5. Vet J. 2010, 184: 138-45. 10.1016/j.tvjl.2009.03.035.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jones C: Herpes simplex virus type 1 and bovine herpesvirus 1 latency. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003, 16: 79-95. 10.1128/CMR.16.1.79-95.2003.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ackermann M, Engels M: Pro and contra IBR-eradication. Vet Microbiol. 2006, 113: 293-302. 10.1016/j.vetmic.2005.11.043.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Odeón AC, Spath EJ, Paloma EJ, Leunda MR, Fernandez Sainz IJ, Perez SE, Kaiser GG, Draghi MG, Cetrá BM, Cano A: Seroprevalencia de la diarrea viral bovina, herpesvirus bovino y virus sincicial respiratorio en Argentina. Revista de Medicina Veterinaria(Argentina). 2001, 82: 216-220.Google Scholar
- Campos FS, Franco AC, Hubner SO, Oliveira MT, Silva AD, Esteves PA, Roehe PM, Rijsewijk FA: High prevalence of co-infections with bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5 found in cattle in southern Brazil. Vet Microbiol. 2009, 139: 67-73. 10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.05.015.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Thiry E, Meurens F, Muylkens B, McVoy M, Gogev S, Thiry J, Vanderplasschen A, Epstein A, Keil G, Schynts F: Recombination in alphaherpesviruses. Rev Med Virol. 2005, 15: 89-103. 10.1002/rmv.451.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Meurens F, Keil GM, Muylkens B, Gogev S, Schynts F, Negro S, Wiggers L, Thiry E: Interspecific recombination between two ruminant alphaherpesviruses, bovine herpesviruses 1 and 5. J Virol. 2004, 78: 9828-9836. 10.1128/JVI.78.18.9828-9836.2004.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pagamjav O, Sakata T, Matsumura T, Yamaguchi T, Fukushi H: Natural recombinant between equine herpesviruses 1 and 4 in the ICP4 gene. Microbiol Immunol. 2005, 49: 167-179.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Del Medico Zajac MP, Romera SA, Ladelfa MF, Kotsias F, Thiry J, Ziant D, Meurens F, Keil GM, Thiry E, Muylkens B: Characterization of interspecific recombinants generated from closely related bovine herpesviruses 1 and 5 through multiple PCR sequencing assays. J Virol Methods. 2009, 161: 75-83. 10.1016/j.jviromet.2009.05.020.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Del Medico Zajac MP, Puntel M, Zamorano PI, Sadir AM, Romera SA: BHV-1 vaccine induces cross-protection against BHV-5 disease in cattle. Res Vet Sci. 2006, 81: 327-334. 10.1016/j.rvsc.2006.01.004.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Alegre M, Nanni M, Fondevila N: Development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the differentiation of bovine herpesvirus-1 and -5. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2001, 48: 613-621.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schynts F, Baranowski E, Lemaire M, Thiry E: A specific PCR to differentiate between gE negative vaccine and wildtype bovine herpesvirus type 1 strains. Vet Microbiol. 1999, 66: 187-195. 10.1016/S0378-1135(99)00008-5.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Henderson LM, Levings RL, Davis AJ, Sturtz DR: Recombination of pseudorabies virus vaccine strains in swine. Am J Vet Res. 1991, 52: 820-825.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Javier RT, Sedarati F, Stevens JG: Two avirulent herpes simplex viruses generate lethal recombinants in vivo. Science. 1986, 234: 746-748. 10.1126/science.3022376.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Halliburton IW, Honess RW, Killington RA: Virulence is not conserved in recombinants between herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. J Gen Virol. 1987, 68: 1435-1440. 10.1099/0022-1317-68-5-1435.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hubner SO, Oliveira AP, Franco AC, Esteves PA, Silva AD, Spilki FR, Rijsewijk FA, Roehe P: Experimental infection of calves with a gI, gE, US9 negative bovine herpesvirus type 5. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005, 28: 187-96. 10.1016/j.cimid.2005.01.003.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Silva AD, Spilki FR, Franco AC, Esteves PA, Hubner SO, Driemeier D, Oliveira AP, Rijsewijk F, Roehe PM: Vaccination with a gE-negative bovine herpesvirus type 1 vaccine confers insufficient protection to a bovine herpesvirus type 5 challenge. Vaccine. 2006, 24: 3313-20. 10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.01.024.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Madic J, Magdalena J, Quak J, van Oirschot JT: Isotype-specific antibody responses in sera and mucosal secretions of calves experimentally infected with bovine herpesvirus 1. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1995, 46: 267-283. 10.1016/0165-2427(94)05363-W.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kaashoek MJ, Straver PH, Van Rooij EM, Quak J, Van Oirschot JT: Virulence, immunogenicity and reactivation of seven bovine herpesvirus 1.1 strains: clinical and virological aspects. Vet Rec. 1996, 139: 416-21. 10.1136/vr.139.17.416.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kaashoek MJ, Rijsewijk FA, Ruuls RC, Keil GM, Thiry E, Pastoret PP, Van Oirschot JT: Virulence, immunogenicity and reactivation of bovine herpesvirus 1 mutants with a deletion in the gC, gG, gI, gE, or in both the gI and gE gene. Vaccine. 1998, 16: 802-809. 10.1016/S0264-410X(97)00269-7.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nugent J, Birch-Machin I, Smith KC, Mumford JA, Swann Z, Newton JR, Bowden RJ, Allen GP, Davis-Poynter NJ: Analysis of equid herpesvirus 1 strain variation reveals a point mutation of the DNA polymerase strongly associated with neuropathogenic versus nonneuropathogenic disease outbreaks. Virology. 2006, 80: 4047-4060. 10.1128/JVI.80.8.4047-4060.2006.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.